(I) ILO Conventions regarding Vocational Guidance and Training
C140 Paid Educational Leave Convention, 1974
Convention concerning Paid Educational Leave (Note: Date of coming into force: 23:09:1976.)
In this Convention, the term paid educational leave means leave granted to a worker for educational purposes for a specified period during working hours, with adequate financial entitlements.
The Convention considers paid educational leave as one means that enables individual workers to meet the challenges imposed by the continuous scientific and technological development of the modern society, and the changing pattern of economic and social relations. Accordingly, each country member is required to formulate and apply a policy designed to promote, by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice and by stages as necessary, the granting of paid educational leave for the purpose of:
(a)Training at any level; (b) General, social and civic education; (c) Trade union education, The Convention emphasizes that the Paid educational leave should not be denied to workers on the ground of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin
C142 Human Resources Development Convention, 1975
Convention concerning Vocational Guidance and Vocational Training in the Development of Human Resources (Note: Date of coming into force: 19:07:1977.)
According to the Convention the country members are expected to adopt and develop comprehensive and co-ordinated policies as well as programmes of vocational guidance and vocational training, closely linked with employment, in particular through public employment services. The main aim of these policies and programmes is improving the ability of the individual to understand and, individually or collectively, to influence the working and social environment, as well as encouraging and enabling all persons, on an equal basis and without any discrimination whatsoever, to develop and use their capabilities for work in their own best interests and in accordance with their own aspirations, account being taken of the needs of society.
The Convention also emphasizes the importance that each country should work on enhancing its systems of vocational guidance, including continuing employment information, in order to ensure that comprehensive information and the broadest possible guidance are available to all children, young persons and adults, including appropriate programmes for all handicapped and disabled persons.
(II) ILO Recommendations regarding Vocational Guidance and Training
R57 Vocational Training Recommendation, 1939
The Recommendation tries to set certain criteria to organize the work of the various official and private institutions in each country which deal with vocational training, they should take in consideration the following criteria: the occupational interests and cultural and moral requirements of the worker; (b) the labour requirements of employers; (c) the economic and social interests of the community.
The Recommendation emphasizes on providing Compulsory education, which should be entirely general in character, and prepare children to develop an idea of, taste for, and esteem for, manual work, these being an indispensable part of a general education and likely to facilitate future vocational guidance. The Recommendation contains articles regarding concerning the promotion, financing, content and certification of vocational education. It also stresses the importance of maintaining close collaboration between technical and vocational schools and the industries or other branches of activity concerned, particularly by the inclusion of employers and workers in the governing bodies of the schools or in advisory bodies to the schools.
R60 Apprenticeship Recommendation, 1939
The Recommendation sets some measures that should be taken to make apprenticeship as effective as possible in trades in which this system of training seems necessary. The Recommendation emphasizes the importance of setting a fixed age under which young persons should not be allowed to enter into apprenticeship, and it should not be below the age at which school attendance ceases to be compulsory, entry into apprenticeship should in every case be subject to a medical examination, as well as registration of apprentices with appropriate bodies. The Recommendation also refers to the remuneration of apprentices and their transfer from one employer to another.
R87 Vocational Guidance Recommendation, 1949
The Recommendation sets special provision for programmes directed to young persons, including those in school, who require counselling on problems related to entering occupations or planning careers, as well as programmes directed to adults who require counselling on employment and related vocational problems. The Recommendation also highlights the importance that the competent authority should ensure the employment of an adequate number of officers with suitable training, experience and other qualifications, and should organise, to the fullest possible extent and in co-operation where appropriate with other bodies concerned, specialised scientific and technical training for vocational guidance staff as well as promoting public and private research and experiment in methods of vocational guidance.
R88 Vocational Training (Adults) Recommendation, 1950
The Recommendation sets some regulations regarding vocational training offered to adults including disabled persons, it emphasizes that appropriate training facilities should, be made available for adults, either by adapting training facilities for young persons or by setting up special facilities or by both methods , such facilities should be sufficiently developed to include appropriate arrangements for initial, refresher, supplementary and upgrading training. Employers should be encouraged to take measures, either individually or in co-operation with other employers, to provide training for adults in accordance with their employment requirements. The Recommendation also refers to the importance of international co-operation among the States Members in measures to promote the training of adults.
R101 Vocational Training (Agriculture) Recommendation, 1956
The Recommendation sets some regulations regarding vocational training in agriculture. The Recommendation emphasizes that members should establish or expand adequate systems of vocational training in agriculture; each country should set the objectives clearly of vocational training in agriculture. Training should cover instruction in adequate techniques and methods of work, the development of the capacity for judgment and, as may be appropriate, instruction in the planning of farm operations and the principles and practice of farm management .The Recommendation covers different methods of vocational training in agriculture : pre-vocational training , agricultural instruction in secondary schools , agricultural technical Schools , training on the farm as well as extension Services and apprenticeship. The Recommendation also refers to the importance of international co-operation among the States Members in measures to promote vocational training in agriculture.
R117 Vocational Training Recommendation, 1962
The recommendation advices each country to have a network of training facilities, adjusted as regards number, location and curricula to the economic requirements and employment possibilities of the country as a whole or, where more appropriate, of each region or locality, to meet the training needs of the residents of the country. The network should be so designed as to facilitate transfer from one type of training to another and access to successive stages and different levels of training, so that an individual may be able to reach the highest level of training within his capacity and in accordance with his inclination. The recommendation also stresses on the need of Co-operation between partners concerned with training and particularly public authorities, educational bodies and employers' and workers' organisations.
R136 Special Youth Schemes Recommendation, 1970
Recommendation concerning Special Youth Employment and Training Schemes for Development Purposes.
Abstract: This Recommendation focuses on special schemes designed to enable young persons to take part in activities directed to the economic and social development of their country and to acquire education, skills and experience facilitating their subsequent economic activity on a lasting basis and promoting their participation in society.
These special schemes are : (a) schemes which meet needs for youth employment and training not yet met by existing national educational or vocational training programmes or by normal opportunities on the employment market; (b) schemes which enable young persons, especially unemployed young persons, who have educational or technical qualifications which are needed by the community for development, particularly in the economic, social, educational or health fields, to use their qualifications in the service of the community.
R148 Paid Educational Leave Recommendation, 1974
The Recommendation starts with the definition of the term paid educational leave ,it means leave granted to a worker for educational purposes for a specified period during working hours, with adequate financial entitlements. It then moves to set the Policy and Methods of Implementation .
R150 Human Resources Development Recommendation, 1975
The Recommendation focuses on the vocational guidance and vocational training of young persons and adults for all areas of economic, social and cultural life and at all levels of occupational skill and responsibility. The recommendation provides advice regard to the Policies and Programmes vocational guidance and vocational training, closely linked with employment, in particular through public employment services
R195 Human Resources Development Recommendation, 2004
The General Conference of the International Labour Organization, Geneva June 2004,
The recommendation adopted by the ILO in its recent conference in June 2004 focused on the importance of education, training and lifelong learning which contribute significantly to promoting the interests of individuals, enterprises, the economy and society as a whole, especially considering the critical challenge of attaining full employment, poverty eradication, social inclusion and sustained economic growth in the global economy. The recommendation called on governments, employers and workers to renew their commitment to lifelong learning: governments by investing and creating the conditions to enhance education and training at all levels; enterprises by training their employees; and individuals by making use of the education, training and lifelong learning opportunities.
3. Members should identify human resources development, education, training and lifelong learning policies which:
(a) facilitate lifelong learning and employability as part of a range of policy measures designed to create decent jobs, as well as to achieve sustainable economic and social development;
(b) give equal consideration to economic and social objectives, emphasize sustainable economic development in the context of the globalizing economy and the knowledge- and skills-based society, as well as the development of competencies, promotion of decent work, job retention, social development, social inclusion and poverty reduction;
(c) stress the importance of innovation, competitiveness, productivity, growth of the economy, the creation of decent jobs and the employability of people, considering that innovation creates new employment opportunities and also requires new approaches to education and training to meet the demand for new skills;
(d) address the challenge of transforming activities in the informal economy into decent work fully integrated into mainstream economic life; policies and programmes should be developed with the aim of creating decent jobs and opportunities for education and training, as well as validating prior learning and skills gained to assist workers and employers to move into the formal economy;
(e) promote and sustain public and private investment in the infrastructure needed for the use of information and communication technology in education and training, as well as in the training of teachers and trainers, using local, national and international collaborative networks;
(f) reduce inequality in the participation in education and training.
4. Members should:
(a) recognize that education and training are a right for all and, in cooperation with the social partners, work towards ensuring access for all to lifelong learning;
(b) recognize that the realization of lifelong learning should be based on the explicit commitment: by governments by investing and creating the conditions to enhance education and training at all levels; by enterprises in training their employees; and by individuals in developing their competencies and careers