and Ikram, S. (in press, b)
‘Evidence of desert
routes across northern Kharga (Egypt’s Western Desert).
H. Riemer and F. Förster (eds.) Desert Road Archaeology in the Eastern
and Ikram, S. (in press, a)
‘North Kharga Oasis
Survey 2007 Preliminary Report: Ain Lebekha and Ain Amur’.
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Kairo 64.
‘A Desert zoo: An exploration of meaning
and reality of animals in the rock art of Kharga Oasis’.
H. Riemer, F. Förster, M.
Herb & N. Pöllath (eds.), Desert animals in the eastern Sahara: Status,
economic significance, and cultural reflection in antiquity.
Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary ACACIA Workshop held at the
University of Cologne December 14-15, 2007.
Colloquium Africanum 4. Köln: Heinrich-Barth-Institut (2009), 263-91.
‘Drawing the World: Petroglyphs from
ArchéoNil 19 (2009), pp. 67-82.
‘The North Kharga Oasis Survey’.
Bulletin of the American Research Center in Egypt 193 (2008), pp. 28-31.
‘Egypt’s Frontier Oasis: A Visual
Archaeology, 61.6 (2008), pp. 36-41.
Rossi and Salima Ikram
'North Kharga Oasis
Survey 2007 Preliminary Report: Ain Lebekha and Ain Amur.
forthcoming in Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts
‘The North Kharga Oasis Survey: A Brief
Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists, J-C.
Goyon & C. Cardin, eds. Leuven: Peeters (2007), pp. 953-59.
|Jones, J. and Oldfield, R.
"What Kind of Wool is Made by the Egyptians from a Tree?"
Archaeological Textiles Newsletter 43: 27-32 (2006).
Paths, Petroglyphs, and Piety: the North
Kharga Oasis Survey 2006 Season’.
Bulletin of the American Research Center in Egypt 190 (2006), pp. 18-23.
‘Brief Report of the North Kharga Oasis
Survey’s 2005 Season’.
Bulletin of the American Research Center in Egypt 187 (2005), pp. 8-11.
|Salima Ikram and Corinna Rossi
'North Kharga Oasis Survey 2004. Preliminary Report: Ain Tarakwa and Ain el-Dabashiya'
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Kairo 63 (2007),
The goals of the North Kharga Oasis Survey (NKOS) have been to identify, record and survey the major archaeological sites of the northern part of Kharga Oasis. The work of the final season in the first cycle of exploration of the area focussed on the sites of Ain el-Tarakwa and Ain el-Dabashiya, and the Darb Ain Amur, the desert route between Ain Umm el-Dabadib and Ain Amur. In the former areas the survey recorded two temples, several tombs, an animal cemetery, and a
variety of buildings, including a church. The Darb Ain Amur survey yielded many rock-art sites, as well as several locations that marked the route between the two springs.
|Corinna Rossi and Salima Ikram
with contributions by Alan Clapham, Amanda Dunsmore, Alison Gascoigne and Nicholas Warner
"North Kharga Oasis Survey 2003 Preliminary Report: Umm El-Dabadib"
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Kairo 61 (2006),
This article contains a first description of the results of the third season of the North Kharga Oasis Survey, that in 2003 focussed on the late-Roman site of Umm el-Dabadib, in the Kharga Oasis. An introductory paragraph on the methodology that has been adopted to survey such a complex site is followed by a description of the archaeological remains, which includes three main settlements, called Northern, Eastern, and 'Fortified', a Coptic church, a temple decorated in
Egyptian style, ten cemeteries, seven underground aqueducts and large patches of ancient cultivations. The majority of the standing remains date to the third and fourth century AD, but there is evidence that the site had been occupied at least from the Ptolemaic Period.
|Salima Ikram and Corinna Rossi
"A New Early Dynastic Serekh from the Kharga Oasis"
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 189 (2004), pp. 211-5
During the 2003-04 season of the North Kharga Oasis Survey (NKOS), a hitherto unnoticed serekh of an Early Dynastic pharaoh was discovered on a rock along the Darb Ain Amur, the ancient caravan route that connected Kharga to Dakhla Oasis. The serekh, probably dating to Dynasty 0 or Dynasty 1, bears the previously unrecorded name of a king 'A'. The discovery of an early dynastic royal name so distant from the Nile Valley adds new evidence to the extent of royally
sponsored travels in the Early Dynastic period.
|Salima Ikram and Corinna Rossi
with contributions of Alan Clapham, Amanda Dunsmore, Richard Knisely-Marpole, Alan Rowe, Ilka Schacht and Nicholas Warner
"North Kharga Oasis Survey 2001-2002 Preliminary Report: Ain Gib and Qasr el-Sumayra"
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts Kairo 60 (2004),
This article contains an overview of the first two seasons of work of the North Kharga Oasis Survey. The survey area includes several archaeological sites to various degrees of preservation. The first season was dedicated to the basic identification and exploration of all sites, whilst the second focussed on the study of Ain Gib and Qasr el-Sumayra. The archaeological remains in the area include the standing remains of small forts, settlements, necropoleis, extensive
water systems and traces of ancient cultivations. Theodolite, walking, and aerial survey methods were used to accomplish the aims of the project. The conclusion is that Qasr elGib and Qasr el-Sumayra were part of a scattered but busy community that in the Fourth Century AD controlled the northern access to the Kharga Oasis.
"A Preliminary Survey of the Ancient Qanat System of the Northern Kharga Oasis"
Mitteilungen des Archaeologischen Instituts Kairo 59 (2003), pp. 279-306
A description is given in this paper of the extensive ancient water systems in the northern part of the Kharga Oasis, systematically explored and recorded in January 2002 (by the North Kharga Oasis Survey). Some of these underground aqueducts (qanats) were known to exist but many kilometers of new qanats were noted for the first time by the preliminary survey. This paper discusses the nature of the remains examined, and provides some initial ideas about their origin,
construction, operation and their relationship to nearby sites. Drawing on ancient and modern parallels, the tentative theory is proposed that the majority of the qanats were constructed (and possibly administered) under Roman control and that their utilisation closely parallels modern examples.
|Corinna Rossi and Salima Ikram
"Petroglyphs and Inscriptions along the Darb Ayn Amur, Kharga Oasis"
Zeitschrift der Ägyptischen Sprache 129 (2002), pp. 142-51
This article contains the result of a preliminary exploration of part of the Darb Ayn Amur, one of the two caravan routes that connected the Oases of Dakhla and Kharga. The prehistoric, Greek and Arab material collected along the way finds many parallels in the body of graffiti, rock-drawings and inscriptions recorded elsewhere in the Western Desert, and confirms that the track was used by travellers of all periods. The presence of Old Kingdom graffiti is particularly
important not only because it provides new evidence concerning Old Kingdom activity in Kharga Oasis, but also because it links Kharga to the period of maximum expansion of the powerful Old Kingdom settlement at Ayn Asil in Dakhla.
|Salima Ikram & Corinna Rossi
"Surveying the North Kharga Oasis"
KMT 13.4 (2002), pp. 72-9
This popular article contains a brief summary of the results of the 2001 and 2002 seasons of the North Kharga Oasis Survey, co-directed by the two authors. During the 2001 season, NKOS explored the sites of Ayn Gib, Qasr el-Sumayra, Muhammed Tuleib, Ayn Lebekha, Ayn el-Tarakwa, Ayn el-Dabashiya and Umm el-Dabadib. The text is accompanied by some of the stunning aerial photographs of these archaeological sites taken by Richard Knisely-Marpole during the 2001 season.
"Kite Aerial Photography in Egypt's Western Desert"
Aerial Archaeology Research Group Bulletin - AARGnews 23 (September 2001), pp. 33-37
This article describes the techniques used to obtain the Kite Aerial Photographs (K.A.P.s) during the 2001 season. For the first time, the K.A.P.s were taken using a digital camera rather than the usual motor-driven 35mm SLR, saving on weight and bulk and enabling instant viewing of the images once the camera had been recovered. The whole K.A.P. outfit will pack into a small rucksack. Digital imaging also allows manipulation of the image to enhance some details in the
landscape that are otherwise not evident. The K.A.P. was not without incident, owing to the exceptionally strong winds experienced during this season's work, but despite some spectacular crashes, the Olympus C3030Z cameras continue to operate perfectly.
"Umm el-Dabadib, Roman settlement in the Kharga Oasis: description of the visible remains. With a note on 'Ayn Amur"
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Kairo 56 (2000), pp. 235-52
This article contains a first extensive description of Umm el-Dabadib, a large settlement which lies at the northern border of the Kharga Oasis (Egypt). The visible remains consist of a small but impressive fort surrounded by a fortified settlement, a northern settlement, scattered ruins, an extensive necropolis of rock-cut tombs and a remarkable subterranean aqueduct. The site, which has never been studied or excavated, seems to provide mainly Roman and Coptic
material, although an earlier occupation, at this stage, cannot be excluded. Umm el-Dabadib lay along the ancient caravan route which linked Dakhla and Kharga across the small Oasis called 'Ayn Amur, where a little temple was erected. This article also contains a short report on the visit paid to 'Ayn Amur exactly 90 years after Winlock, who reached the site by camel and recorded its archaeological remains.